TIJ1O - Nov 28

Culminating Project

For you culminating project the following needs to be done:
After the wall is built there is a second component (electrical) but with the number of bus cancellations we have had I will need to determine if there is enough time to complete this section.
Please note - all papers must have first and last names clearly written on them.

January 9, 2017

Here's what we have covered so far:
  • Measurement
  • Adruino microcontroller programmer
  • Electricity - parallel and series circuits
  • Framing
  • Designing & building football shooters
For our last two weeks together we will be combing these skills into our final project.

Drawing and Sketching

We sketch to convey ideas quickly. Sketches can be quick and lack detail, or be elaborate and show a lot of detail - often in what are called 'callouts' - or annotations designed to bring attention to an area of your sketch and explain/show it in more detail.

What Makes a Sketch, a Sketch?

Eleven attributes that make sketching valuable and important. Sketches are:

Quick - We don't need to spend a lot of time mulling over our ideas.
Timely - Its super easy to whip up a sketch in the middle of a meeting to help describe an idea.
Inexpensive - All you need is something to write on and a pen.
Disposable - If the idea doesn't last, it doesn't hurt to recycle some paper.
Plentiful - It only takes a couple hours to jam through 40 or more sketches.
Have a clear vocabulary - When someone sees a sketch, they intuitively know its just an idea or a "what if'."
A distinct gesture - Sketches are loose and invite conversation and collaboration.
Have minimal detail - Don't sweat the details, just get your idea on paper to spark something with your team.
Have the appropriate level of refinement - The rough feeling of a sketch helps keep the conversations broad.
They suggest and explore rather than confirm - We can ask questions and start a conversation about the problems at hand. We decide on details later.
They are ambiguous - Sketches leave ideas open for misinterpretation and give people the chance to read into them further. This often leads to even better ideas and make people feel invested.

Even if you aren't good at art, there are tricks to sketching:

  • sketch from the elbow
  • strike light, adding emphasis afterwards.
  • move your paper

  • squares
  • circles
  • arcs
tricks to lettering


grab paper, try 5 squares, circles, ellipses, stars
Use bounding boxes that are all the same size. Come up with your own font by making the rectangles different sizes and fit the letters of your first name in each box. Determine if you want to have solid or empty letters.


When considering perspective we consider 2 possible vanishing points in this course. A vanishing point is one of possibly several points in a 2D image where lines that are parallel in the 3D source converge. We typically only examine 1 and 2 point perspective in high school (1 vanishing point or 2).

One point perspective

One point drawing

Try this!

Step 1:
Set up your canvass. Make sure you know the MAXIMUM EXTENT that your drawings will occupy (e.g. make sure your objects fit in the overall box). After this make sure that you draw your vanishing point lines. Not all 1-point perspective drawings have vanishing points in the dead center of the drawing, but if they do, you can simply make a large 'X' and the crossing point is the vanishing point.
Set up your canvas
Setting up your canvass by determining scale, and overall dimensions
Step 2:
Place your faced objects at the appropriate coordinates (sometimes it helps to further subdivide your page into halves or even quarters to ensure placement of the objects is correct. All X and Y coordinates are face-on to the viewer with NO perspective. All Z axis (i.e. going into the distance) lines disappear towards the vanishing point. Ensure all lines are light so that when you erase eclipsing lines you don't have heavy traces over your page.
Setting up your objects of interest
Setting up your objects of interest
Step 3:
Carefully erase all lines that are eclipsed.
Erasing eclipsed lines
Erasing eclipsed lines

2-Point Perspective

2 point perspective setup
2 point perspective

YouTube Video

Assignment #1 - Draw the following picture

Draw this picture

Superb choices in line-weights and angles that best illustrate the object. Drawing is free from distracting elements
Good choices in line-weights and angles that best illustrate the chosen topics. Drawing is defect-free but may contain a few unwanted features
The sketches have some defects, but still portray the object
The sketches have many defects or are poor quality.
1 point perspective drawing
Lines merge seamlessly at the VP. There are no flaws in the drawing.
Lines merge at the VP with few flaws in the drawing.
Lines generally at the VP.
Lines merge but with much room for improvement.

Use of Time
Used time well during each class period (as shown by observation by teacher) with no reminders.
Used time well during most class periods (as shown by observation by teacher) with no reminders.
Used time well (as shown by observation by teacher), but required reminders on one or more occasions to do so.
Used time poorly (as shown by observation by teacher) in spite of several reminders to do so.

Filetype and size
All elements are present.
Generally all elements are present.
Many present. Some important components missing.
Only a few of the requirements have been met


The other view that we examine in this course is that of NO perspective which can be useful in attending to either measurements or detail. Non-perspective drawings we will consider are orthographic drawings (simple 2D of the face of an object with absolutely no perspective) and isometric drawings (which show 3 dimensions, but with no perspective).

Orthographic projections and Elevations

An orthographic drawing is one where there is no perspective and you are only showing the face of an object. Often labeled as the elevation (e.g. front/top/side/back) orthographic drawings usually come in a 3-pack Front/Top/Side which together form what is called the orthographic projection. These are used quite frequently in manufacturing of objects since each face can be shown in some detail without the distraction of perspective.

An elevation simply looks like this:
The Front/Top/Side of an object together form the orthographic projection
Orthographic picture

Isometric and Orthographic Sketching

Orthographic projections from isometric source

As we said earlier, one of the benefits of working on an orthographic drawing is that there is an unchanging scale as long as you continue to work in the same units. To that end, you need to understand measurements and scale.

Rulers and SCALE

Imperial system vs. Metric system

The metric system is a very straightforward system where units of measurement for length/distance simply operate on factors of 10. E.g. 1000 m = 1 km and 1000 mm = 1m. Your whole life you've been taught metric - however, there are industries around the world which use the IMPERIAL system of measurement.

For example:
  • the LUMBER industry uses FEET and INCHES instead of cm and m!
  • the AVIATION industry uses miles instead of km!
  • many people know their WEIGHT in POUNDS, not their MASS in kg!

Here is a look at the IMPERIAL SYSTEM, as it is used to measure LENGTH (or distance):

  • 1 MILE = 1760 YARDS (= 5280 feet = 63360 inches)
  • 1 YARD = 3 FEET (=36 inches)
  • 1 FOOT = 12 INCHES
  • 1 INCH can be broken into 1/2ths, 1/4ths, 1/8ths, 16ths, 32nds etc...

Some common examples of these units include…
1 YARD   
slightly shorter than 1m   
the width of your classroom door or the height of your kitchen counters off of the ground   
1 FOOT   
about 30cm   
the size of a (size 12) shoe or roughly the height of a piece of paper   
1 INCH   
about 2.5cm   
the length of a small paper-clip or the diameter (width) of a quarter   
Imperial Units Examples
6 feet   
6 ft.   
13½ feet   
13 ½ ft.   
13½' OR 13' 6"   
8 inches   
8 in.   
3 ¼ inches   
3 ¼ in.   
3 ¼ "   
The division of ONE inch (and thus any inch) is broken down into whatever divisions you want. Mostly commonly we break down into halves, quarters, eights and sometimes in this course sixteenths.
Division of an inch


Sometimes when we draw, if we were to draw everything in the real world on paper we'd have to use a GIANT sheet of paper (for example, a FRONT ELEVATION - see below). Because the scale of such drawings are often smaller than life-size, an architect's scale features multiple units of length and proportional length increments.

Common scales in architecture are (note: the two columns do NOT show equivalence in measure):
Metric (SI)   
US Imperial   
1:4 (3" to a foot)   
1:8 (1.5" to a foot)   
1:12 (1" to a foot)   
1:16 (3/4" to a foot)   
1:48 (1/4" to a foot)   
1:96 (1/8" to a foot)   

This house is probably drawn at 1:50 or 1:100 (SI) or 1:48 (Imperial)
Front elevation

Complete the following on a blank piece of paper:

Assignment #2 - Orthographic Projections

Complete the following orthographic projection worksheets using the 1 square is equal to 1/4 inch.

Part 3 of the assignment - you are to frame a wall using one 8' 2"x4" (remember that wood shrinks 1/2 inch).  Your wall must be 2 feet wide, you decide the height but can't use more than the one 2x4.  You are to create an orthographic drawing of your wall to scale.  


Superb choices in line-weights Drawings are free from distracting elements   
Good choices in line-weights Drawings are defect-free but may contain a few unwanted features   
The drawings have some defects, but still portray the edges of the object   
The drawings have many defects or are poor quality.   
All measurements are exemplary   
Generally good measurements with a few flaws   
Measurements are sound with errors   
Measurements are poorly done, but still complete.   
Hidden lines   
All hidden lines present   
Hidden lines present but with occasional errors   
Hidden lines occasionally present   
Presence of a hidden line or two, but generally most in the wrong place   
Use of Time   
Used time well during each class period (as shown by observation by teacher) with no reminders.   
Used time mostly well during most class periods (as shown by observation by teacher) with no reminders.   
Used time well (as shown by observation by teacher), but required reminders on one or more occasions to do so.   
Used time poorly (as shown by observation by teacher) in spite of several reminders to do so.   
All elements are present.   
Generally all elements are present.   
Many present. Some important components missing.   
Only a few of the requirements have been met   

Dec 13, 2016

Dec 2 - group survey

Starting December 12 groups will be designing and building football shooters.Next week I will need you to provide details about materials that you will require to build your shooter.  Start thinking of ideas so I can arrange to have the materials available.  Cost may be a restriction.

November 30, 2016

Nov 28 Slideshow

November 28, 2016

Ontario Skills Robotics Scope

In Google Drive create a Google Sheets, Your job is to create a shopping list of materials to make the playing fields for the Ontario Skills Scopes.  You should include the following headings: Material, Dimensions, Quantity, Price per unit, Subtotal.

November 29, 2016